Holarrhena antidysenterica kutaj bark
Holarrhena antidysenterica is an herb used in Ayurvedic herbal medicine. Holarrhena antidysenterica has steroidal alkaloids designated as holadysenterine, antidysentericine, conessine, conimine, isoconessimine and kurchessine.
Alkaloids of Holarrhena antidysenterica seeds are antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal agents.
Inhibition of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
adhesion on host epithelial cells by Holarrhena antidysenterica.
Phytother Res. 2009.
Bacterial adhesion is the first step in the sequence of events leading to infection. Previous data are available on the effect of Holarrhena antidysenterica on antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial action, but there is little information on the mechanism of action of the various aspects of EPEC-induced diarrhoea, namely adherence and translocation of the effector molecule to intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of alkaloids of Holarrhena antidysenterica (AHA) on interference in the mechanism of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) adhesion on host epithelial cells (INT 407 and HEp2). To determine the impact of AHA on epithelial cells, cytotoxicity (LDH), adherence, apoptotic and ultrastructural studies were performed. To analyse the effect of AHA on EPEC secreted proteins, especially EspD, INT 407 monolayers were infected with EPEC and AHA-treated EPEC, followed by immunoblotting, probed with anti EspD antisera. The maximum percentage of LDH leakage was reduced in AHA-treated EPEC (400 microg/mL) in both cell lines. Reduced bacterial adherence was observed under light microscopy and altered apoptotic changes were visualized using propidium iodide staining in conjunction with fluorescence microscopy, in both cell lines infected with AHA-treated EPEC and these results were confirmed with transmission electron microscope images. The suppression of type III secretory proteins, EspD ( approximately 40 kDa), was detected in INT 407 cells infected with AHA-treated EPEC. Holarrhena antidysenterica reduces initial bacterial adhesion to intact epithelial cells and it may exert an antiadherence effect against the pathogenesis of EPEC in host epithelial cells. Thus, the investigations provide a rational basis for the treatment of EPEC-mediated diarrhoea with Holarrhena antidysenterica.
horny goat weed herb